HIV Test | SINGAPORE STI™
HIV Test | SINGAPORE STI™ @singaporesti_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Test | SINGAPORE STI™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV Test
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil
Tue, 26 May 2015 20:34:48 +0100 | Ciencia e Saude Coletiva
Este estudo objetivou analisar a percepção que as Organizações da Sociedade Civil fazem de sua contribuição na história do enfrentamento à AIDS, no Amazonas. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa com uso de fontes documentais e orais. Os dados foram coletados entre junho e setembro de 2013. Utilizou-se técnica de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado com as lideranças de oito organizações que trabalham/trabalharam com grupos mais vulneráveis. A partir da análise do discurso, concluiu-se que com a descentralização de recursos do Departamento de DST, AIDS e Hepatites Virais para as Coordenações locais, as Organizações reconhecem dois momentos distintos: um primeiro momento de fortalecimento organizacional, engajamento coletivo e participação política ativa; e um momento a...
Post-diagnosis abortion in women living with HIV/Aids in the south of Brazil
Tue, 26 May 2015 20:34:48 +0100 | Ciencia e Saude Coletiva
Discussion: The analysis of the reproductive trajectory of the women studied showed that there is no specific profile of the woman who aborts after receiving the HIV diagnosis. Although this diagnosis may be involved in the decision to terminate a pregnancy, it does not necessarily result in the end of a woman's reproductive trajectory. Thus, abortion should be understood within a diversity of decision-making processes and the specific moment of a woman's life story. Objetivo: Compreender como o diagnóstico de HIV se conjuga com outros fatores que concorrem para a decisão pelo aborto. Metodologia: Os dados são provenientes de um estudo transversal, com mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, que frequentavam serviços públicos de saúde, em Porto Alegre. As trajetórias de vida de 18 entrevistadas q...
Sierra Leone: Global Fund Boss Assures Health and Sanitation Minister
Tue, 26 May 2015 14:59:17 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Sierra Leone Government] Geneva -In 2014, Sierra Leone received from the Global Fund an allocation of US$ 126 million to fight HIV/AIDS, TB, and Malaria. But in order to access the funds the country needed to submit an application in the form of a Concept Note to the Global Fund. The Concept Note would then be reviewed by a special committee of the Global Fund, the Technical Review Panel (TRP). The TRP makes recommendations to the Board of the Global Fund which approves commitments and subsequent disbursements to countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Male Involvement Crucial to Prevent HIV Infection of Babies
Tue, 26 May 2015 10:50:11 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents] Preventing transmission of HIV from mothers to their babies is a huge global priority in the HIV response, but until recently the importance of involving men has not been recognised. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Hearing loss in developing countries: Canada, Google fund creative innovations
Tue, 26 May 2015 04:00:00 +0100 | EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health
(Terry Collins Assoc) Investments of CDN$2.3 million (US$1.85 million) from sources in Canada and the USA, including Grand Challenges Canada and Google.org, will enable two Canadian organizations address hearing loss in developing countries.Not-for-profit World Wide Hearing Foundation International will develop a diagnostic kit for rural use. And a new company, Hearing Access World, will screen and quickly equip people with high-quality hearing aids at a fraction of the usual $2,000-$3,000 cost. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Adverse Drug Reactions and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Initiated on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study From Ethiopia
Tue, 26 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Drug Safety
Is Photodynamic Diagnostic Flexible Ureterorenoscopy Suitable for a Patient presenting with Chronic Actinic Dermatitis?
Tue, 26 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine)
Speech intelligibility tests and analysis of confusions and perceptual representations of Thai initial consonants
Tue, 26 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Speech Communication
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015 Source:Speech Communication Author(s): Charturong Tantibundhit , Chutamanee Onsuwan We methodically designed and developed a subjective intelligibility testing of Thai speech for initial consonants based on the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT). The Thai DRT for initials (TDRT-I) was designed to equally compare 21 phonemes pairwise, which results in 210 stimulus pairs. The test is well-constructed using real monosyllabic words. TDRT-I have main advantages in that percent intelligibility scores in each stimulus pair as well as confusion patterns across all phonemes can be evaluated and compared. To confirm its validity, we carried out a series of experiments. The subjective intelligibility tests were conducted on 28 Thai normal hearing listeners in...
Organic wine safety: UPLC-FLD determination of Ochratoxin A in Southern Italy wines from organic farming and winemaking
Tue, 26 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Food Control
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Food Control, Volume 59 Author(s): Fausto Gentile , Giovanna Loredana La Torre , Angela Giorgia Potortì , Marcello Saitta , Maria Alfa , Giacomo Dugo A fast reversed-phase UPLC method was utilized for Ochratoxin A (OTA) determination in 55 different wine samples (red and white) produced in Southern Italy, during two vintages. All the samples came from vineyards in which the plants were subjected to organic farming and were produced according to an organic winemaking, following strict rules on processing aids. Analytical methods included the clean-up purification by using commercial immunoaffinity columns and an Acquity UPLC® system equipped with a fluorescent detector; the sensitivity of the analytical method was 0.01 ng mL−1. OTA was detected ...
Malawi: NAC Gives Blantyre Cbos K6.5 Million
Mon, 25 May 2015 17:40:54 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Malawi News Agency] Blantyre -Twenty four Community Based Organisations ( CBOs) from Blantyre on Thursday received cheques totaling K6, 522, 497 from the National Aids Commission-NAC towards activities in the HIV and AIDS response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)