HIV RNA Test | SINGAPORE STI™
HIV RNA Test | SINGAPORE STI™ @singaporesti_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) RNA (ribonucleic acid) test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV RNA Test | SINGAPORE STI™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
target=_blank rel="nofollow">What Hillary Clinton Could Do About the Opioid Crisis
Tue, 05 May 2015 18:37:28 +0100 | Healthy Living - The Huffington Post
During a recent campaign stop, presidential candidate Hillary Clinton promised to make the "quiet epidemic" involving heroin and prescription opioids an important part of her presidential campaign -- and, presumably, of her presidency, should she be elected. She mentioned the issue of substance misuse again in her highly publicized speech on criminal justice reform last week.
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Liberia: UNAIDS Urges Support to HIV/Aids Program in Liberia
Tue, 05 May 2015 16:23:27 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[LINA] UNAIDS Country Director, Dr. Betru Woldesemayat, has called on participants at the just-ended Joint UNAIDS and partners retreat, to make significant contributions to develop the new UN Joint Program of Support to HIV/AIDS in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Penn Medicine researchers receive $7.5 million to expand HIV gene therapy work
Tue, 05 May 2015 04:00:00 +0100 | EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine and the Penn Center for AIDS Research have been awarded $7.5 million over five years from the National Institutes of Health to initiate a multi-project HIV study investigating a new gene therapy approach to render immune cells of HIV positive patients resistant to the virus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Swaziland: Health Minister - HIV Response Can Help Tackle Malaria in Southern Africa
Tue, 05 May 2015 02:44:29 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents] Sibongile Ndlela-Simelane, Swaziland's minister of health and social welfare, has called for lessons learned from the HIV response in Southern Africa to be applied to the response to malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Partner notification in the context of HIV: an interest-analysis
Tue, 05 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
We present an interest-analysis of partner notification in the context of HIV service rendition. Using principles-based analysis, the interests of the individual, the state/public health, and the bioethicist’s are discussed. The public health interests in partner notification, which are usually backed by state statutes and evidence, are premised on the theory that partners are entitled to knowledge. This theory posits that knowledge empowers individuals to avoid continuing risks; knowledge of infection allows for early treatment; and that knowledgeable partners can adapt their behavior to prevent further transmission of infection to others. However, persons infected with HIV often have counter interests. For instance, an infected person may desire to maintain the privacy of their health ...
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Liberia: NAC Craves Increased Political Commitment to Curb Spread of HIV
Mon, 04 May 2015 17:23:53 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[LINA] The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission (NAC), Dr. Ivan F. Camanor, is calling for increased political commitment, domestic resource mobilization, scale-up treatment and support services to curb the spread of HIV in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Global Warming May Spread Lyme Disease
Mon, 04 May 2015 16:30:00 +0100 | Scientific American - Official RSS Feed
Scientists tackle the difficult problem of how climate change aids the spread of the tick-borne disease
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.
Mon, 04 May 2015 16:24:05 +0100 | Pharmacological Reports
Authors: Singh G, Pai RS
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Botswana: Participants Get Peer Educators Certificates
Mon, 04 May 2015 13:12:14 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Botswana Daily News] Francistown -Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) and the Ministry of Youth Sports and Culture (MYSC) have awarded the Botswana National Service Programme (BNSP) participants certificates as peer educators. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
target=_blank rel="nofollow">Potential Epidemiological Impact of Pre-Exposure ProphylaxisPotential Epidemiological Impact of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
Mon, 04 May 2015 13:00:54 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
Could an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis program make a significant epidemiological impact? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)