HIV PEP | SINGAPORE STI™
HIV PEP | SINGAPORE STI™ @singaporesti_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment to stop HIV infection within 72 hours of exposure, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV PEP | SINGAPORE STI™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
| Notes || Sampling Method |
Time to Results
Cost / Price
| 0-72 hours |
No test available
| || |
| 2 weeks (as short as 10-12 days) |
HIV DNA test
- A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) for HIV-1 proviral DNA, therefore a HIV DNA Test.
- Method: Proviral DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA Test, V1.5) This test uses primers SK145 and SKCC1B to define a sequence of 155 nucleotides within a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 gag gene.
- Usually used for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in neonates born to HIV+ mothers. As maternal antibodies circulate in the child for several months, the HIV antibody test would be positive.
- Also used for early HIV diagnosis in adults.
| 1 month |
HIV combo test
| || Fingerprick |
HIV rapid test
| 1 month |
HIV duo test
| || Venipuncture|
| 3 months |
| || HIV oral test /|
HIV saliva test /
HIV rapid test
| 3 months |
HIV blood test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV western blot test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV RNA test
| || Venipuncture|
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Sex workers clients in Italy: results of a phone survey on hiv risk behaviour and perception.
Sat, 20 Dec 2014 22:00:03 +0100 | Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita
Conclusions. It is necessary a constant monitoring of the characteristics, behaviour, risk perception and testing of SW clients in Italian and other populations.
HIV in Older Adults: A Guide for HIV Primary Care CliniciansHIV in Older Adults: A Guide for HIV Primary Care Clinicians
Sat, 20 Dec 2014 15:15:12 +0100 | Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines
Dr Joseph McGowan provides a commentary to the New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute's guide to managing HIV in older adults. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Tunisia: Security Situation in the Country Has Improved Significantly - Nouerfelli
Sat, 20 Dec 2014 11:21:28 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Tunis Afrique Presse]Kasbah -The security situation in the country has improved significantly, on the level of fight against terrorism, organised crimes, smuggling as well as concerning the borders and the neutrality of mosques, spokesperson of the government Nidhal Ouerfelli said Friday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Assessing life styles, stressors and health status among a predominantly African American on-campus and off-campus student population - Hicks T, Herndon M, Hilton A, Attoh P, Armstrong V.
Sat, 20 Dec 2014 02:04:00 +0100 | SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated)
Students who attend college and reside on campus often have to contend with social problems such as alcohol and drug abuse, HIV/AIDS infection, courtship, sex and marriage, home and family and other social-psychological issues while trying to maintain acad... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Comprehensiveness and programmatic vulnerability to stds/hiv/aids in primary care
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 21:25:32 +0100 | Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP
This study aimed to identify programmatic vulnerability to STDs/HIV/AIDS in primary health centers (PHCs). This is a descrip - tive and quantitative study carried out in the city of São Paulo. An online survey was applied (FormSUS platform), involving administrators from 442 PHCs in the city, with responses received from 328 of them (74.2%), of which 53.6% were nurses. At - tention was raised in relation to program - matic vulnerability in the PHCs regarding certain items of infrastructure, prevention, treatment, prenatal care and integration among services on STDs/HIV/AIDS care. It was concluded that in order to reach comprehensiveness of actions for HIV/ AIDS in primary health care, it is necessary to consider programmatic vulnerability, in addition to more investment and reor - ganizat...
Gambia: NRA, GFPA Ink D20.8 Millions HIV/Aids, Road Safety Deal
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 14:24:40 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Daily Observer]The National Roads Authority (NRA) and the Gambia Family Planning Association (GFPA) Tuesday signed a sensitisation contract agreement as part of the implementation of the Trans-Gambia Corridor Project, amounting to D20, 813, 936 (twenty million, eight hundred and thirteen thousand, nine hundred and thirty six dalasis). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Govt to Create HIV Programme for Gays
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 07:30:35 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[New Zimbabwe]THE government is going to create a specific HIV and AIDS programme targeting homosexuals and sex workers as a way of controlling the infection rate, a senior government official has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis - Thakkar MM, Sharma R, Sahota P.
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 05:55:54 +0100 | SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated)
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Age-Related Eye Diseases and Recommendations for Low-Vision Aids
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 01:43:49 +0100 | Home Healthcare Nurse
This article provides guidance on the most appropriate methods for communicating with patients who have limited vision. The 4 major causes of vision loss in this population are briefly reviewed. Low-vision aids are described and sources for these products are identified. (Source: Home Healthcare Nurse)
HIV Diagnoses, Prevalence and Outcomes in Nine Southern States
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Journal of Community Health