HIV PEP | SINGAPORE STI™
HIV PEP | SINGAPORE STI™ @singaporesti_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment to stop HIV infection within 72 hours of exposure, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV PEP | SINGAPORE STI™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients in Bahrain: a four-year review (2009-2013).
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 07:10:10 +0100 | Herpes
CONCLUSIONS: Studying the pattern of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Bahrain is of paramount importance due to the scarcity of data in the Arab world. This will help to improve physicians' awareness to improve care of HIV-infected patients.
HIV Encephalopathy: pediatric case series description and insights from the clinic coalface.
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 02:35:02 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
CONCLUSIONS: Amongst the cohort of children referred to this clinic, the diagnosis of HIVE was unrecognized in the general medical services, even in its most severe form. Developmental delay and school failure were major presenting problems. Co-morbidities are a frequent finding and should be sought actively in order to optimize management and promote best possible outcomes for this vulnerable group of children.
Pharmacokinetics of chewed vs. swallowed raltegravir in a patient with AIDS and MAI infection: some new conflicting data.
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 02:35:02 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that chewed 400 mg semi-daily raltegravir in rifampicin co-medication leads to optimized pharmacokinetics. There is need for more data from randomized trials for further recommendations.
Ethnopharmacological surveys and pharmacological studies of plants used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Gabon
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Conclusion It is concluded that some of these plants might be submitted to further scientific studies, including the identification and isolation of bioactive principles, that could be developed to drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
A Blizzard Couldn't Stop These People From Helping Those In Need
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 20:40:22 +0100 | Healthy Living - The Huffington Post
For some New Yorkers, Monday's blizzard conditions meant braving the cold for the sake of others who needed some help.
A Systematic Review of Recent Smartphone, Internet and Web 2.0 Interventions to Address the HIV Continuum of Care
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 13:52:31 +0100 | Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Kenya: Condom Advert - HIV Prevention or Infidelity Promotion?
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 11:28:17 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents]Controversy over an advert on condom use to prevent HIV among married couples led by a cross section of Kenyan religious leaders has left many HIV activists astonished at the 'denial of reality'. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cameroon: CAPEC Alleviates Impact of HIV/Aids
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 09:52:07 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Cameroon Tribune]The Cameroon Association for the Protection and Education of the Child, CAPEC, has been carrying out voluntary HIV screening with her "Mobile Clinic" team in Kumba and Konye Sub-divisions in Meme Division of the South West Region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rice-size implant that boosts hearing and cuts ear infections
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 09:07:58 +0100 | the Mail online | Health
A new implant could help the many people who struggle with standard hearing aids. Peter Kay, 70, a business consultant from Bramhall in Greater Manchester, had one fitted. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Angola: Polio Eradication Considered As Health Sector Gain
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 07:00:59 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Polio
[ANGOP]Luanda -The polio eradication and the development of services in health facilities for monitoring and treatment of people with HIV/AIDS and the expansion of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Program (PMTCT) were identified as the sector's gains, according to the incumbent minister, José Van -Dunem. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)